Last week, the federal government vowed that Canada would reduce its carbon emissions by 40 to 45 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030. Climate researchers say that can’t happen, however, without significant changes to Canada’s oil and gas production, including the elimination of the industry subsidies that help support it. Angela Carter, an associate professor in the department of political science at the University of Waterloo, recently co-authored a report titled Correcting Canada’s ‘One Eye Shut’ Climate Policy. It examines two ways of tackling emission reductions: from the demand side (that is, where fossil fuels are consumed and burned) and from the supply side (where they are produced). According to Carter, international institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) count emissions in the country where they’re burned. Canada has publicly focused on the demand side, she argues, with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announcing things like $15 billion to fund greener transportation.