In our political system, the incumbent party is largely seen to have the first right to attempt to continue governing after an election, even if they don’t win the most seats. That’s right: Just because a party wins the most seats in an election, it doesn’t mean they automatically will form the next government. So, if the seat count is close but the Conservatives win more, Trudeau could opt to not accept defeat and take the first chance to test the confidence of the House of Commons. This would see Trudeau, who would still be the prime minister, reconvening MPs for a new session of Parliament. There, he’d present a Speech from the Throne and this would be the first and key confidence vote he’d need to pass.